Cartography: Germany I

Cartography [n.]: Mapping, review

My trip through Germany in April 2015 gave me the unique opportunity to speak to eight support organizations in all four corners of the country: North, South, East and West. Six of them focus their activities on Germany and selected cities within (Social Impact Labs, Heldenrat, Impact Hub Berlin), two work with social entrepreneurs internationally (Yunus Social Business, The DO School), and Social Entrepreneurship Akadamie in Munich caters to both national and international social startups offering different programs.

Local & national programs

Social Impact Labs are very similar in the services and benefits they provide as part of their support program Social Impact Start. Locally, though, each Lab has strong local partners and runs pretty self-sufficiently. I wonder if any plans are in place to make use of their Lab-network across Germany (not to mention their program-partnerships with Impact Hub Zurich and Vienna!). The Impact Hub network sets a great example for sharing knowledge and experiences among their Hub facilitators and members (though I still don’t exactly know what that looks like behind their closed doors. Did my Honorary Membership invite get lost in the mail?).

Though still young, Impact Hub Berlin is gaining a lot of traction and seems to have found their niche in the German capital. Their new space is great, no question. Let’s see what kind of programs Leon ad his team manage to line up in the months to come and I shall check back in to see how things are going.

Impact Hub Berlin 2

Impact Hub Berlin

When I first started my research into the field of social venture support organizations, I insisted on the category of pro-bono consultants solely because I had heard of Heldenrat. Strictly speaking I am looking at structured support programs for social entrepreneurs and one could argue that they only partly meet this definition. At the same time, they have a process in place of helping out struggling social entrepreneurs and charities. They are able to fill gaps in the support landscape and connect startups in need with relevant support organizations. I have tremendous respect for the team of volunteers around Tom and Birgit for devoting their free time to being volunteer advisers for startups and nonprofits in need.

International Programs

As far as internationally-oriented programs go I spoke to Yunus Social Business, the DO School and Social Entrepreneurship Akademie. Yunus Social Business is headquartered in Frankfurt and manages their core operations from there. There was little opportunity for insights into their programs at work which take place in seven countries around the world. However, their attempt of using their participants’ feedback to inform their program is remarkable even without my field visit. This seems like an easy and obvious mechanism for many of us who I’m sure have at least heard of the Lean Startup Approach, yet Yunus Social Business was the first social venture support organization who was able to make concrete statements about the effectiveness and relevance of their training schedule and services by gathering feedback from their participants.


DO School Fellows of the Green Store Challenge

While working at the DO School over the period of 18 months I was lucky to work closely with several cohorts of social entrepreneurs. Their one-year program goes beyond supporting them in developing a plan for a social venture (during their ten weeks in Hamburg) and implementing it (ten months after) in their home communities. A lot of work within the program is dedicated to ideation, facilitation and developing participants’ personalities. After all, for the ten weeks in Hamburg, they live and work together 24/7. It’s fair to say that the dedication of Romy and her team make the difference in this program.

How many #SocEntSupport programs assess their relevance and effect through participant feedback? Click To Tweet

Social Entrepreneurship Akademie at the opposite (South) end of the country sets a good example of building up strong partnerships to secure the financial sustainability. Speaking to Kristina I realized what energy (and philanthropic capital) mutually-beneficial partnerships can bring to the table. With their active engagement with the European Venture Philanthropy Forum and the Global Social Entrepreneurship Network I think of Social Entrepreneurship Akademie as one of the agenda-setters in the field in Germany, and Europe.


Spotlight: Maria Gross

Maria long

What drives you?

To show that we can do business better and differently without causing damage.

Biggest SocEnt trend you have seen in the last 5 years?

Social entrepreneurship in Germany has exploded: Suddenly, the public sector and corporates have realized that it exists, as you can see in social impact’s work with SAP and Deutsche Bank. And we are not just talking financial support; we get their teams on board to help startups out with their expertise and through mentoring. With these sectors opening up, we had so many more connections – a great basis for good partnerships.

Currently reading

Self-esteem (“Selbstachtung”) by Poletti and Dobbs. I see many people burn out over their social start-ups and trying to make a living. It’s not sustainable, we need to learn to look after ourselves, so this is a good read.


Maria started out with an apprenticeship as an industrial clerk in automobile industry and stayed on in HR in total for six years. She did a part-time bachelor in management but didn’t see herself in the for-profit industry. She tried out development aid in her role as program assistant at the Goethe Institute in Togo and realized it wasn’t for her. “… at least not the way international development works at the moment. I raised questions of sustainability and impact of the work we were doing. To me, it lacked of enablement and created dependencies.” She went on to get her masters in non-profit management in Berlin but found that she was missing the practical experiences and relationships to the world of practitioners. “Around that time, I met Stefan, Elizabeth and Christina who had founded ROCK YOUR LIFE!. As one of the first franchises, we launched ROCK YOUR LIFE! in Berlin. And that was my introduction to social entrepreneurship. I had found a way of doing good through an economic lense, and got a chance to combine my passion and skills.”

As a social entrepreneur in Berlin, she soon learned about Ashoka and the work Norbert Kunz was doing at the Social Impact Lab. “I applied ‘Young Leaders for Sustainability‘ at the Collective Leadership Institute and their program enabled me to train in leadership while also working at Social Impact (iq consult back then). I transitioned to project assistant and took over the lab management in 2013. This is where I met my current business partner Jan who was a Social Impact Start participant at the time. I had worked so much with startups, I loved the energy and wanted to get involved. I had the chance to join Vehement in September 2013 as CEO and have worked two jobs since then.”

Being CEO of a social venture herself and having worked in the support industry for several years, Maria has a great sense for the realities of running a social enterprise. I ask her about whether she ever considered quitting the impact space and she responds: “Yes. It is little money for all the days and nights you work. I have been living on a shoestring budget ever since I left my corporate job. When I see how the careers of my peers have developed, I know I could make more money and that is tempting. At the same time, deep down, I know I wouldn’t want to do it, it wouldn’t make me happy. And then, something great happens and I am reminded of why I do this.”


Spotlight: Leon Reiner

Leon long

What drives you?

The will to do something good with the things that I do well: enabling, networking and sales. The Impact Hub gives me the framework to do that, combining business and something good.

Biggest SocEnt trend you have seen in the last 5 years?

I’d say the first German-speaking incubation program was a milestone. I worked with Norbert Kunz when he initiated Social Impact Start four years ago. More recently, we had the ‘Deutschlandforum fuer Gesellschaft & Innovation’ – an annual forum by the German Chancellery on the issue issue of the year. In 2015, it’s Society & Innovation. If you google social entrepreneurship these days chances are you will end up on the websites of Zeit or Sueddeutsche Zeitung – mainstream media is covering it! When I started teaching at Humboldt University Berlin, I was the only one offering a course in social entrepreneurship in Germany, and students were flooding the lecture hall! Today you see many young talented Germans with entrepreneurial drive who are not scared to give it a go!

Currently reading

All the Light We Cannot See, by Anthony Doerr 


During my studies in development economics I spent most of my time analyzing the constant failures of top down approaches, everybody was complaining about what was wrong with the world but no-one offered practical solutions. I grew frustrated with the culture of complaint and started looking for alternatives. Due to my family background with both parents running businesses I soon started researching concepts like fair trade, micro-credits and after a long search social entrepreneurship. I was intrigued by this pairing of the “go and do” attitude of entrepreneurship with the vision to build a practice oriented alternative to the top down development models I had studied.

Additionally, I couldn’t imagine going to a foreign country to tell people what to do. I wanted to find something new to solve the problems on here on our doorstep – I found social entrepreneurship.

After writing my final thesis, I started interning at a consultancy for social entrepreneurs in Berlin. I got lucky, and shortly after I started there, they kicked off the first German-speaking incubation program to support social start ups, and hired me. In my time there, I got to see many ideas in an early phase. I saw what could be done and what couldn’t, and after some time set out to start my own business. After teaching social entrepreneurship at university and some smaller consulting gigs, I met my co-founders Anna, Nele, and Martin. I can’t believe it’s been two years since we first started working on Impact Hub Berlin.



Spotlight: Mareike Mueller

Mareike long

What drives you?

Find good solution for existing problems, being a supporter.

Biggest SocEnt trend you have seen in the last 5 years?

At the beginning it was a niche topic and no-one knew whether it was a hype or more. But now public administrations, large charities and companies are starting to understand that there is such a thing as ‘social entrepreneurship’. Our increasing numbers of applicants tell me that civil society is increasingly interested in the topic.

I spent some time in Spain and I have come to believe that for young Germans starting your own business is not really that popular; we don’t like taking risks. You have to be absolutely convinced of your idea to make the conscious decision to give up your job and start your business. In Spain, on the other side, youth unemployment is very high so starting a business is a great opportunity. With much less to give up, they develop start-up models out of necessity.

Currently reading

“The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time” by Mark Haddon and the current issue of brand eins


After graduating from high school, Mareike spent eight months in Bolivia working for an NGO providing vocational training to single mothers and disabled people. During her undergraduate degree in European Studies, she worked in an educational project in South Africa. Her studies were followed by a stint at the German Technical Cooperation in Eschborn, Germany. “I thought I wanted to go into development but I found it too bureaucratic and far from creating any sustainable impact. I don’t agree with the top-down approach of telling developing countries how to do things – run their businesses, build their infrastructure, etc.”

As an alternative to international development, Mareike became interested in social entrepreneurship. She took a masters in development economy and specialized in social change and innovation. After graduation, she went to Berlin and joined betterplace lab in digital solutions to social issues. She conducted research in Colombia and Bolivia to interview stakeholders in the ecosystem of social innovation (see the results of her research here) and published results in the Trendreport and Zeit Online.

In terms of partnerships and collaboration among support organizations for social entrepreneurs, Mareike says: ”We collaborate with other actors to run programs such as Think Big Pro together with Telefonica Foundation, and we work closely with other support organizations such as the Impact Hubs in Munich, Vienna or Zurich. Competitive behavior in our sector is misplaced, but we have to take out time to look around and see what happens in other places in order to build partnerships, cooperate and create a large ecosystem for doing good.”



Social Impact Lab Berlin

Berlin was the first city to have a Social Impact Lab and is at home in Kreuzberg – a popular and affordable alternative neighborhood in Berlin. That’s where I meet Maria Gross, core member of the Social Impact Lab team for three years. After we are caught up on the last year. I ask her about financial sustainability of the support industry for social entrepreneurs.

We need to invest more in building long-term partnerships, especially with the corporate sector. Click To Tweet

… We all need to deliver good products to our customers and I think we can support each other in achieving this goal. It is crucial for us support organizations to learn to speak the corporate language. Right now, private and social sector are worlds apart. I believe that by understanding corporate needs we can build a bridge and in return bring our world closer to them.” Maria continues to be affiliated with Social Impact but is taking some time off to run Vehement – a social venture selling vegan fight sport equipment.

From Markthalle Neun – an indoor food market in Kreuzberg – we walk over the Social Impact Lab Berlin where I sit down with Mareike Mueller, Lab manager. The organization behind all the Social Impact Labs is called Social Impact. As it started in Berlin, I feel like I owe you some history and background: Social Impact – back then called iq consult – was founded by Ashoka Fellow Norbert Kunz in 1994. Social Impact aims at developing and executing programs that support entrepreneurs with a social mission.

Since 2011, Social Impact focuses on building an infrastructure for social innovation. Click To Tweet

 At the center of this undertaking is the establishment of Social Impact Labs around Germany. Don’t get confused now. Social Impact – the organization – is the mother-ship of Social Impact Labs (five in Germany). It runs startup programs for social and inclusive entrepreneurs, and offers startup consulting. The first program is called Social Impact Start enabled by SAP and government-funded by the Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ). Are you with me? Through all these various startup programs, Social Impact has worked with 260+ teams and helped found over 140 social businesses. Around 10% of startups did not make it, the remaining 90% combined received more than 100 national and international awards for their business concepts and awards.

Social Impact Lab 1

Let’s see what Social Impact Lab in Berlin has to offer:

Social Impact in Berlin runs several programs for aspiring social entrepreneurs including Social Impact Start and Social Impact Finance. Social Impact Finance consists of two main elements:

A crowdfunding arm: In collaboration with Deutsche Bank Foundation and Startnext, Social Impact Finance has set up a crowdfunding platform for social entrepreneurs only, and throws in  training and support to guide startups through the crowdfunding process.

A good #SocEntSupport program is able to react to the needs of each #SocEnt. Click To Tweet

The second program under Social Impact Finance matches employees of Deutsche Bank with startups that are affiliated with Social Impact Lab. “In this program, it is important that employees find a match – a startup and entrepreneur that they are interested in and can work with productively. We as the facilitators make sure that participating startups clearly define their need and we check in with them regularly. The tandem lasts for more or less four months though we’d rather let the tandem decide the duration on a needs’ base.” Mareike explains. I ask her what makes an effective support program in her opinion: “A good program is able to react to the needs of each social entrepreneur individually. Social entrepreneurs here at the Social Impact Lab have very different backgrounds and pre-existing knowledge. We try look very closely at what they really need.”

Social Impact Lab Berlin 2

As in the other Social Impact Labs I had the chance to visit, I feel their golden rule revolves around delivering support programs that establish a baseline of startup expertise for every cohort, but leave enough room for individual support tailored to the needs of each entrepreneur/entrepreneurial team. And it seems to work if only 10% of startups quit or fail!

Secondly, what I really like about their business model is their efforts in setting up and maintaining strong partnerships with the private sector. In tune with what Maria said, companies can learn a lot from support organizations and their startups, for example through corporate volunteering. Both sides win. Getting partners like SAP and Deutsche Bank (private sector) or JP Morgan Chase Foundation and Telefonica Foundation (third sector) on board, is not nothing! It seems that Social Impact has learned, or is in the process of, speaking the corporate language and is pioneering a partnership model that – I hope – many other support organizations are inspired by and can learn from!


Impact Hub Berlin

In late March I visited Impact Hub Berlin, back then still hidden away in a corner of the Kreuzberg neighborhood. The entry takes you through a cafe which was packed with people. I walked up to the third floor to find their main work space rented out for an event (one of their income sources). I called Leon who was hiding out somewhere in the building to get some work done. Measured by the noise level of social innovation in the cafe-slash-alternative co-working area, I couldn’t blame him. We squeezed in on a sofa and jumped right into an exciting conversation. I had met Leon on a couple of occasions before. Even though Berlin to Hamburg is less than two hours by train, I had no idea what he and his team were up to at the newly founded Impact Hub and I couldn’t wait to get his inside-view of the social innovation space in Berlin, Germany’s start-up epicenter. Side note: If you agree to meet me over lunch, be prepared for a rapid one. I am good at asking questions in between bites, how good are you at answering?

It was difficult finding investors for something that had previously failed, but we did it! Click To Tweet

In early 2013, Nele, Anna, Martin and Leon found each other; with different backgrounds but a shared passion for enabling social entrepreneurship. I was surprised to learn that Berlin used to have an Impact Hub that couldn’t sustain itself and closed down in the late 2000’s. “It was difficult finding investors for something that had previously failed, something in which other investors had lost their money. None of them came on board and we had to cast our web wider. At some point we were tired of waiting, balancing the pros and cons. We put out the word that we would set up an Impact Hub in Berlin, and went for a walk. When we came back four hours later, my inbox was full. People wanted to get involved, they wanted an Impact Hub. So we got to work.”

Impact Hub Berlin

Inside Impact Hub Berlin’s new space F246


Two years later Impact Hub is moving from Kreuzberg into the heart of Berlin, expanding their space by the factor six in a large space in Friedrichstrasse. “We learned a lot in these first two years. Most of all, we came to understand that you need to practice what you preach. In our case that’s user-centered design, fast prototyping, design thinking. That’s why the new space is designed after the needs of our members.” If you’re interested in some of the lessons Leon & team learned from starting up an Impact Hub, check out “Failing Forward“.

Over 11.000 Hub members and makers connect online to exchange experiences across countries. Click To Tweet

I ask Leon what makes a good support program (one of my favorites): “A strong and effective program needs to be comprehensive. To me, that means covering living costs, grant network access, and bringing in great mentors. Often, programs only focus on one or two of these factors instead of seeing the whole picture. Oh, and a program should make sure that everyone involved has a stake in the startup’s success.” Leon also lets me in on some more information about the Impact Hub network (25 Hubs in Europe alone!). Over 11.000 Hub members and makers connect on an online platform to exchange experiences across countries. Learning on the platform happens in communities of practice that host up to 100 people. On top of that, hub-makers meet once a year to learn from each other and discuss challenges and ways forward. Hmmm… Can I borrow someone’s Hub hat for once and sneak in? I dread picturing the vast knowledge and expertise these hub-makers exchange behind closed doors! Knock knock, let me in!

Impact Hub Berlin offers its members a co-working space, structured peer-to-peer learning, a number of events and workshops, opportunities for networking among founders, as well as personal tailored consulting. Their programs cover innovation workshops and bootcamps, an intrapreneurship program and a one-year Impact Hub Fellowship. Until these launch, here’s an example to see what they are up to:

Impact Hub Berlin 2

Focused Area

One of the support programs Impact Hub Berlin offers is the Impact Academy Climate, which is an ideation program for a Climate KIC – a startup competition for innovative startup ideas to fight climate change. The Impact Academy Climate takes place at 26 universities around Germany and focuses on ideation and business model development delivered in two workshops. Participating startups can apply to the final pitch night at Impact Hub Berlin and the two best ideas move on into the Climate-Kic Greenhouse program –  the first of three phases of Europe`s biggest climate innovation accelerator. It supports them through coaching and input-sessions on topics such as market testing business modeling, the three finalists receive a one-year membership at Impact Hub Berlin.

I can’t wait to see what other programs will kick off at Impact Hub Berlin over the next year. When I visited, it was still somewhat early days. Since our interview in March, they have moved to their new location and held a number of events. Let’s see which programs spring from that dwell of innovation!



Field study: Germany

Field study [n.]: Preliminary research

First things first: Apologies for the excessive use of footnotes in this post. I want to give credit where it’s due and not get into trouble for plagiarism. I worked through a number of studies – some of which are great to dive deeper into the topic – and have summarized their main points. You will find MY observations at the end of this series in the Cartography post.  

My trip through the Netherlands and Belgium was followed by a month in Germany which gave me some time to freelance and the opportunity to visit support organizations in Frankfurt, Berlin and Hamburg. Having worked in the German social enterprise support sector, I had to challenge myself to step out of my preconceptions and try to see the sector for what it is.

I was astonished to find how much research had already been done on social entrepreneurship in Germany – it was almost daunting to even start diving into the topic for fear of what I would find, and how much. Here are some key insights from the studies I looked at:

Social Entrepreneurship is not new to Germany, some #SocEnt are as old as 30 years. Click To Tweet

… but they often don’t identify as such. The five most relevant social issues in Germany – according to a SEFORÏS report1)Wolf, Myriam (2014). The State of Social Entrepreneurship in Germany SEFORÏS Country Report. (based on another study by the German Ministry for Education and Research2)Müller, Susan, Dominik Rüede, Kathrin Lurtz, Hartmut Kopf, and Peter Russo (2013). Deutschland 2030: Herausforderungen als Chancen für Soziale Innovationen. World Vision Center for Social Innovation, Wiesbaden.) are

  1. Labor market: unemployment and skill shortage
  2. Education: coupling of socio-demographic background and level of education
  3. Income and wealth: increasing division between rich and poor, failure to generate income to secure existence
  4. Environment: Coupling of resource use and economic growth
  5. Health: healthcare provision (aging society) and lifestyle diseases.

Unexpected findings

Apparently, strong welfare organizations make it tricky for social entrepreneurs to find their niche and establish themselves as a unique field. It’s almost like the “market for addressing social issues” is already among organizations like Deutscher Caritasverband (German Caritas Association), Arbeiterwohlfahrt (workers’ welfare association) or Diakonie, making it difficult for new-comers such as social entrepreneurs to position themselves and try out new approaches.3)Wolf, Myriam (2014). The State of Social Entrepreneurship in Germany SEFORÏS Country Report.

Risk-aversion of Germans: “German society tends to be risk averse. Risk averseness is one of the major cultural factors impeding entrepreneurial activities and ultimately also influencing availability of funding for social enterprises.”4)Brixy, Udo, Rolf Sternberg, and Arne Vorderwülbecke (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) – Länderbericht Deutschland. Hannover. I will add that in former East Germany – having been born and bred there myself – individual behavior was not necessarily encouraged. Under socialism, the market was heavily (if not exclusively) regulated by the state – going the extra mile didn’t pay off in most cases. During the first 19 years of my life, I didn’t know a single entrepreneur.

Under socialism, entrepreneurship was not encouraged. Does it show in today's #SocEnt sector? Click To Tweet

I believe this mindset is still deeply rooted in East-Germans and hampers their entrepreneurial spirit. I wouldn’t assume this is true for all Germans that lived on the Eastern side of the wall, but it is one influencing cultural factor.

Other Influencing Key-Factors

According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2013, Germany ranks high in terms of physical infrastructure, government programs and protection of intellectual property – factors which create a nurturing environment for entrepreneurs – while ranking low with respect to entrepreneurial education in primary and secondary schools, labor market conditions, and knowledge and technology transfer – factors that don’t create this kind of favorable environment.5)GEM. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2013. Social enterprises can choose from over 20 different legal forms within the German system, none of which is exclusively dedicated to, nor apparently suitable for, social enterprise.6)Wolf, Myriam (2014). The State of Social Entrepreneurship in Germany SEFORÏS Country Report. Instead, social enterprises register as

  • Stiftungen (foundations),
  • Vereine (voluntary associations),
  • GmbHs (limited liability companies) and
  • Genossenschaften (co-operatives)7)Zimmer, Annette & Bräuer, Stephanie (2014). The Development of Social Entrepreneurs in Germany. Westfälische Wilhelms University, Germany.

which makes a head-count very difficult. There also is the legal form of a charitable limited liability company (tax exempt status) which is not mentioned in this study. In 2011, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin counted

  • 580,000 voluntary associations
  • 18,000 foundations
  • 9,000 limited liability companies with tax exempt status, and
  • 8,000 cooperatives in Germany.8)Priller, E., Alscher, M., Droß, P. J., Paul, F., Poldrack, C. J., Schmeißer, C., & Waitkus, N. (2012): DritteSektor-Organisationen heute: Eigene Ansprüche und ökonomische Herausforderungen. Ergebnisse einer Organisationsbefragung. Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung. Berlin.

This leads to a total number of 615,000 organizations in the Third sector. Not bad for a country with a population of 80 million. However, the lack of a separate legal form for social enterprise results in them remaining un-differentiated from other third sector organizations such as charities or even parental or neighborhood initiatives. To be honest, this troubles me.

How important is a legal form for #SocEnt in Germany? Click To Tweet

On the one hand, this lack of differentiation makes it difficult to promote the social enterprise concept in an environment that is already heavily influenced by strong welfare organizations. On the other hand, I argue that legal forms don’t make social enterprise. I believe that mission and impact will dictate legal form, not vice versa. Thoughts anyone?

Scheuerle & Bauer give an insight into financing mechanisms of social enterprise in Germany arguing that certain issues lend themselves more to earned income generation ( e.g. related to environment) than others (social services).9)Scheuerle, Thomas, and Albrecht Bauer (2013). Social enterprises as an investment? Frankfurt.


Financing structure of social enterprises in Germany. Source: Scheuerle, Thomas, and Albrecht Bauer (2013). Social enterprises as an investment? Frankfurt.


What social enterprise support?

None of the reports I studied mentioned support organizations. The only reference to our work, my dear readers, is the last sentence of chapter 4.2 in the SEFORÏS study (2014, p. 11): “Entrepreneur support models, however, only recently started to emerge in Germany but are perceived as highly important for the further development of social entrepreneurship.” Amen. Though I wonder how the authors define “recent”. After all, Germany has a number of strong players in the support sector for social entrepreneurs (swing over to The Changer via google translate for a longer list):

Reason enough for me to visit some of them and learn more about their different approaches to supporting social entrepreneurs around Germany and abroad.

References   [ + ]

1, 3, 6. Wolf, Myriam (2014). The State of Social Entrepreneurship in Germany SEFORÏS Country Report.
2. Müller, Susan, Dominik Rüede, Kathrin Lurtz, Hartmut Kopf, and Peter Russo (2013). Deutschland 2030: Herausforderungen als Chancen für Soziale Innovationen. World Vision Center for Social Innovation, Wiesbaden.
4. Brixy, Udo, Rolf Sternberg, and Arne Vorderwülbecke (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) – Länderbericht Deutschland. Hannover.
5. GEM. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2013.
7. Zimmer, Annette & Bräuer, Stephanie (2014). The Development of Social Entrepreneurs in Germany. Westfälische Wilhelms University, Germany.
8. Priller, E., Alscher, M., Droß, P. J., Paul, F., Poldrack, C. J., Schmeißer, C., & Waitkus, N. (2012): DritteSektor-Organisationen heute: Eigene Ansprüche und ökonomische Herausforderungen. Ergebnisse einer Organisationsbefragung. Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung. Berlin.
9. Scheuerle, Thomas, and Albrecht Bauer (2013). Social enterprises as an investment? Frankfurt.